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Copyrighted by Dino @ Kwu Khai Jin-long

Manchurian People



Where they live:
Manchuria Proper (Northern China) Greater Manchuria (North Korea, Southern Far Eastern Russia and Eastern Mongolia [Gobi])
Total population:
20.8 million (7.3 million in China, 3.8 million in Asia (Southeast and Eastern Asia and Europe and North America) 9.7 million in Russia)
Language Branch:
Altaic, Tungusic, Southern Tungusic, Manchu
Religion:
Nying ma and Kagyu Tibetian Buddhism and Shamanism (Also some Manchus had converted to Islam)
Related to:
Xibe (Sibe), Mongolians, and Tungusic peoples

Some information from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchu_people

Early History


Before and during Qing (Manchurian) dynasty the Manchu people were classified into four banners. The Four Banner extend all the way back to the Shang Dynasty through various Xiong Nu Empires including the Scythian, Samartian, Magyars, Kagorryo, Koryo, Sui, Khitan, Mongols, as well as Vedics and the Sumers. As for the Xiong Nu in traditional Han Chinese it is written as Furious Slave 匈奴 but the last character denoting slave 奴 is a perversion as Xiong 匈 meant Furious the Nu meant the same as the Nui in Nuihuru (Wolf 狼) not Nu the Wu Chinese word for Slave 奴.

The Four Banners were united by the founding father of the Manchu people, Father Nurhachi. Nurhachi was the one who unites all tribes of Manchu and founded the later Jin Dynasty, he also declared war against the Han Empire ( Ming Dynasty ) .

An image of Nurhachi
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Public Domain
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Homeland of Manchurians Media under Public Domain


War with the Han people were declared when Nurhachi declared the " 7 Grievances to heaven " The 7 grievances were :-

  1. The Ming killed the father and grandfather of Nurhaci for no reason
  2. The Ming favored Yehe and Hada while suppressing Jianzhou
  3. Violating agreement of territories by both sides, the Ming forced Nurhaci to make up for the lives of the people who crossed the border and were killed by Nurhaci
  4. The Ming sent troops to defend Yehe against Jianzhou
  5. Backed by the Ming, Yehe broke its promise to Nurhaci and married its “elder daughter” to Mongolia instead of Jurchen
  6. The Ming court forced Nurhaci to give up harvesting the reclaimed lands in Chaihe, Sancha and Fuan
  7. East Liaoning government of the Ming appointed an official Shang Bozhi to perform garrison duty in Jianzhou; however, he abused his power and rode roughshod over the people



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By Sider Niohuru



Upon uniting the original 4 banners , Nurhachi managed to win more battles and this had led to a surrender of more clans and tribes in manchuria. The surrender of these tribes and clans has led to a change to the 4 banners. By having more people joining him, Nurhachi had to divide his army into several more units in order to achieve maximum efficiency in war , and so from the original 4 banners of Yellow, Blue, White and Red , it expanded to 8 banners . Yellow Banner, Border Yellow, Blue Banner, Border Blue , White Banner, Border White and Red Banner with Border Red. [ Pictures of the Original and the latter formed banners can be seen below ] . The newly formed army by inserting soldiers from the surrendered tribes and clans formed the "Border Banner" . With these 8 banners, Nurhachi was ready to invade the Ming Empire. Nurhachi's grandson, Emperor Sunzhi [ First Emperor of Qing Dynasty ] , declared that there should be no more division of clans and tribes. That nobody should ever mention or use the word Jurchen or Khitan , or Hada , or Evenki , etc to refer to the people of the 8 banners. Instead , he declared that all 8 banners' clan and tribes should be called by the name "Manchu"

Below is a Quotation from one of the Manchu Khan-

Note - Translated text will be in this colour and the original text will be in red
  • tere inenggi, han hendume: musei gurun i gebu daci manju, hada, ula, yehe, hoifa kai.
  • [The Khan said on one day , that our original nation name is manchu , hada, ula, yehe , and hoifa ]
  • tere be ulhirakv niyalma juxen sembi. juxen serengge sibei coo mergen i hvncihin kai.
  • [Those who did not know this called us Jurchen ,but Jurchen were the blood relatives of the Sibe Coo Mergen ]
  • tere muse de ai dalji. ereci julesi yaya niyalma muse gurun i da manju sere gebu be hvla.
  • [What relationship are they from us ? From now onwards everyone should call us Manchu ]
  • juxen seme hvlaha de weile.
  • [Those who calls us Jurchen will be severely punished ]

Though from the text , it seems to be denying that Sibe is actually one of Manchu's clan but in actual fact, the quotation was meant to be understood that There is no more tolerance for those who calls the Manchu in different names , and there shall be only one name referring to the people of Manchuria, and that is Manchu.



Manchu Four Banners

The yellow,white banner were being directly controlled by the monarchy, the red and the blues were not.


The Yellow Banner was Aishingorio
They were from modern day North Korea. The Yellow Banner was comprised of the Kagorryo, Koryo, Orchen and Orchi people. The Qing Emperors would come from the Aishingorio clan.
The Blue Banner was
Also see Niuhuru
They lived from the Gobi (Mongolia) to Lake Baikal (In Buryatia, Russia) to the town of Hulan in Heilongjiag (Now in Northern China). The Blue Banner was comprised of the Goldai (Nanai/Henzhen), Daor, Even and Evenki people. The Qing Empresses came from Nuihuru clan.
The White Banner was Sushin
They came from the Liaodong Peninsula of southern Manchuria (Now day China). [Liaodong]
The Red Banner was Xuxi
They were from some what is now called Inner Mongolia and Ga nsu. The Red Banners were a mix Solon, Xuxi and Tsong tribes. (Now day northern and western Chin

Manchu War Banner - Used by Manchu Generals for war when war with another nation is declared


Manchurian (Qing) emperors(Aixingioro's)

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Photo by Outu

Emperor
Ruled for
Shunzhi
1644-1661
Kangxi
1661-1722
Yongzheng
1723-1735
Qinglong
1736-1795
Jiaqing
1796-1820
Daoguang
1821-1850
Xianfeng
1851-1861
Tongzhi
1862-1874
Guangxu
1875-1908
Puyi
1909-1911


Language


The Manchurian language is very different from the Chinese language. Manchurian is an Altaic language from the Manchu Tungusic branch. It has kinship with Mongolian and even shares a similar script. Like Turkish and Mongolian vowel harmony can be found in Manchurian.The grammar of Manchurian, SOV Subject-Object-Verb, is the same as all Altaic languages. A German linguist Johann Joseph Hoffmann found that Japanese has much resemblance to Manchu grammar. Korean grammar also has a resemblance. [1]


An example of Manchu Script

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Public Domain



This Manchu song is sung in both Manchurian and Chinese (Mandarin). The first part is sung in Manchurian and the next part in Chinese. It is not hard to see the differences.

Click Here

Manchurian lyrics:

arbun giru umesi saikan tere sargan jui ,
ainu minde uttu her har serakuu,
ini teile inenggi dari urgun akuu,
bi ere durun i imbe kunduleci,
ainu minde uttu her har serakuu,
minde injecina minbe buyecina .

Here is another Manchu song sung in Manchurian. Click Here



Clothing

In Manchurian culture clothing is very important. To Manchurian women it was vital to appear their best for their husbands and their in-laws .
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By History Girl


Some of the traditional dress for woman.

- The handkerchief is very important. It is to show a lady's politeness.
- A silk scarf around the neck is a way to show beauty.
- The Manchurian headdress with the huge flower in the middle.
- The horse heel shoe which was another way to show beauty and feminism.
- Modern clothing for women involves many western elements.










Now for the men.

- Pigtail hairstyle was like a compulsory uniform for all men during the Qing era.
- Leather boots (Boots are very common for northern Altaic speaking peoples).
- Robes with silk shirt or long pants.
- Skirt like robe for lower body ( inside would be pants )
- Government officers would be wearing a wide round hat with peacock feather. .
- Round cap which was for casual wear normally is decorated with jade or some other precious jewel stone at the tip.

The Manchurian clothing were brought to China during the Manchurian Qing dynasty. The Manchurians forced the Chinese to wear their clothing and hairstyles. The pigtail hairstyle is not Han Chinese but Manchurian. The pigtail hairstyle is a north Asian hairstyle and can even be found in the Turkic Tuvan people.


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Public Domain






Music Samples


This is an Manchurian lullaby sung in the Manchurian language.

The lyrics in Manchurian.

bebu mudan (Lullaby)
io io jo, bebu jo, io io jo io io li bebu jo.
eniye i boobai hasa amgacina,
hvdun i mutu banjiha ningge absi sain jiya.
narhvn ser sere edun daha,
gasha feye de hvdun i bederene.
mini boobai hasa amgacina,
si ere songgotu haha jui.

boobai hasa amgacina,
amba oho manggi morin be yalume tacina.
gabtame bahana manggi abalana,
yala emu absi mangga abalara haha.
mini boobai hasa amgacina,
hvlar sere bira lakcahakv bihe,
ebixeme bahana manggi bira i muke be tuwa,
marulaha manggi butabure be aliyara jiya.


Manchurian Songs
Hargashame Wecere Alin
Šongkoro
Sibe Sargan Jui
Erecun
Andasa I Mujilen (A Pop Song in Manchurian)




Video



A video made by a manchurian via slides, showing some elements of manchu history ,
tradition , struggle , origin and identity.







A Manchurian song from Manchurian living in Manchuria (Now Northern China).
Note: song is in Chinese not in Manchurian. The costume is not Han Chinese but a traditional Manchurian.
The Manchurian clothing were brought to China during the Manchurian Qing dynasty.